The Czech Republic has shut schools and bars, Dutch cafes and restaurants are closing and France could impose curfews, as European governments fight to keep a second wave of Covid-19 infections under control.
The partial lockdown in the Netherlands comes into force at 22:00 (20:00 GMT).
Also on Wednesday, French President Emmanuel Macron is set to detail new measures for Paris and other cities.
Spain’s Catalonia region is also considering its own temporary measures.
Across Europe, infection rates are rising, with Russia reporting a record 14,321 daily cases on Wednesday and a further 239 deaths.
But even in countries that have had greater success than most in keeping transmission down, infections are rising.
Germany has seen more than 5,000 new infections for the first time since April and 47 areas with an average rate of over 50 people per 100,000 residents.
Germany’s RKI public health agency officials speak of seeing an “accelerated rise in transmission in the population”.